Explanations about my model
¨Several experiments proved that all living cells as well as neurons emit continuously ultra weak bioluminescent biophotons without any excitation (Scott et al., 1991; Quickenden and Que Hee, 1974; Yoon et al., 2005; Tilbury and Cluickenden, 1988; Kobayashi et al., 1999; Popp et al., 1984; Isojima et al., 1995; Takeda et al., 1998).
¨Ultraweak photon emission is referred to by various names such as low-intensity chemiluminescence, dark luminescence, ultraweak electromagnetic light, ultraweak bioluminescence, ultraweak photons, biophotons, etc.
¨Biophotons is originated from natural various free radical reactions and the simple cessation of excited state biomolecules. Some examples include lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial respiration chain, peroxisomal reactions, oxidation of catecholamines, oxidation of tyrosine and tryptophan residues in proteins, etc. (Steele, 2003; Watts et al., 1995; Kruk et al., 1989; Nakano, 2005). Mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, lipid peroxidation are, NADPH oxidase are the main sources of ultraweak biophotons. You cannot see biophoton emission from living cells with your naked eyes. Namely, biophotons originates from oxidative metabolism of living cells, i.e., from biochemical reactions of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as excited biomolecules.
¨This ultraweak photon emission comprises various ranges of wavelengths including infrared, visible, and ultraviolet ranges. Visible region biophoton emission is attributed mainly to excited carbonyl groups and singlet oxygen dimers formed during the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides (Tilbury, 1992).
¨The ultraweak biophoton emission from living cells must be differentiated from the more intensive photoemission of the luciferin/ luciferase system. For example, you can see visible photons emitted from glow-worm by luciferin/ luciferase reaction with your naked eyes.
- Under photopic circumstances: 1014 photons per cm2/sec
- Under scotopic circumstances: 109 photons per cm2/sec
- From luciferin/ luciferase reaction system: 106 photons per cm2/sec
- Biophoton intensity from cells: 102 photons per cm2/sec
¨The biophoton radiation emitted from the sample can be detected by a low-noise very sensitive photomultiplier tube working in single photon counting mode (PMT), or by a highly sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera.
¨Major biophoton emission can be originated from the excited electrons of singlet oxygen 1O2 and carbonyl species R=O*. During free radical biochemical reactions, for example lipid during peroxidation, excited carbonyl or singlet oxygen can be formed. When an excited carbonyl or singlet oxygen is released to the ground state, it gives out its energy as a light (biophoton).
2 O2-. + 2H + --- H2O2 + 1O2 1O2 + 3O2 --- biophoton emission
2ROO· + R-OH --- R=O* + 1O2 R=O*+ R=O --- photon emission
¨It is very probable that externally measured ultraweak biophoton emission from various cells originates primarily from the natural oxidation processes of cellular membranes’ surface areas. We pointed out that the actual biophoton intensity can be drastically higher inside cells compared to their surrounding environment. Since the main source of biophotons originates from free radical reactions, this indicates that the actual number of biophotons - inside cells - should be significantly larger than that expected from biophoton measurements, which are usually carried out at a distance of several centimeters from the cells. Namely, the major fraction a biophotons can be absorbed within cells and not emitted from them.
Bókkon I, Salari V, Tuszynski J, Antal I. (2010) Estimation of the number of biophotons involved in the visual perception of a single-object image: Biophoton intensity can be considerably higher inside cells than outside J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biology 100, 160-166.
¨Phosphenes represent the perceived sensation of flashes of light in the absence of visual stimulation. Phosphenes can be points, spots, bars or chaotic structures of colorless or colored
light (Oster, 1970; Walker, 1981). Phosphenes are caused by various stimuli (mechanical, electrical, magnetic, etc.) of cells in the visual pathway as well as random firing of cells in the
visual system (Reznikov, 1981; Lindenblatt and Silny, 2002; Merabet et al., 2003). Phosphenes are an early symptom in a variety of diseases of the retina or of the visual pathways, but healthy individuals can perceive them as well (Onofrj et al., 1998; Brigatti and Maguluri, 2005). Phosphenes can also be associated with emotional factors, drugs, alcohol, stress, fever or psychotic conditions (Cervetto et al., 2007). Induction of phosphenes is dependent on the type of stimulation (electrical or magnetic stimulation), stimulation parameters, and the neural structure of individuals (Merabet et al., 2003; Tehovnik et al., 2005). Furthermore, phosphenes are only perceived by blind subjects who have prior visual experience, suggesting that early visual exposure is essential to maintain any level of residual
visual function (Merabet et al., 2003). The perceived phosphene lies within the visual hemifield contra-lateral to the stimulated cortical hemisphere, at a location reflecting the retinotopic organization of the visual cortex. The minimum magnetic or electric intensity needed to induce a conscious phosphene is widely held to provide a measure of visual cortex excitability (Boroojerdi et al., 2000; Delbeke et al., 2001).
¨It is well documented that the main source of ultraweak biophotons originates from oxidative metabolism of living cells, i.e., from biochemical reactions of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as well as excited biomolecules.
¨Several factors – as electrical or magnetic stimulation of the visual system, mechanical effects on the visual system, various drugs, stress, high-energy ionizing radiation and high-energy particles, optic nerve diseases, etc. – can induce phosphenes. However, these factors have a common feature, i.e., all of them can cause an unregulated overproduction of free radicals and excited biomolecules in various parts of the visual system. This unregulated overproduction of free radicals and excited species can generate a transient increase of ultraweak biophotons in different regions of the visual system. If this excess biophoton emission exceeds a distinct threshold (phosphene threshold), it can appear as phosphene lights in our mind.
Bókkon I. (2008) Phosphene phenomenon: a new concept. BioSystems 92, 168-174.
¨Traditionally, phosphenes are interpreted by only electric processes, and as illusions. My paper was the first that pointed out that various phosphene phenomena due to the transient excess biophotons.
¨It is very important to understand that phosphenes can be elicited and seen without eyes. For example, in early blind people or if eyes are removed direct induction of V1, V2 visual cortex by TMS, rTMS, tDCS stimulation can elicit static phosphenes.
Dark retinal noise of rods (in dark-adapted retinal cells) by bioluminescent photons
Rods have two components of the dark noise: a constant, low amplitude component (amplitude » 0.2 pA) and a discrete component (amplitude » 1 pA) (Schwartz, 1977; Baylor et al., 1980). The continuous component of a rod’s noise originates from the spontaneous activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase molecules (Rieke and Baylor, 1996). Spontaneous activation of rhodopsin produces discrete dark noises indistinguishable from single-photon responses (Baylor et al., 1980).
¨Natural lipid peroxidation is one of the major sources of biophotons. Photoreceptors have the highest oxygen consumption and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration in the body. In addition, reactive oxygen species are constantly formed during cellular metabolism in the retina and are removed by antioxidant defenses. Under regulated circumstances, lipid peroxidation is a natural process in different cells and in retinal membranes (Catalá, 2006), and during normal retinal functioning, external lights produce lipid peroxidation (Dzhafarov et al., 1987). Moreover, Sun et al. (2006) have suggested that oxidative modification of the photoreceptors` outer segment takes place in the retina and that phospholipid peroxidation products act as signaling molecules for retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis.
In addition, the rod (and cone) outer segment membranes are primarily lipoprotein complexes, and rhodopsins (chromoproteins) are surrounded by highly enriched polyunsaturated phospholipids. This complex structure allows rhodopsin to easily catch bioluminescent photons originated from surrounding lipid peroxidation. However, a rod cell in the eye can perceive and transform a single photon (the smallest unit of energy) of light into a neural signal (Baylor et al., 1979).
Our photobiophysical explanation does not need any complex and theoretical temperature calculations that whether the discrete noise due to the temperature fluctuations but can present a reasonable argument as to why spontaneous rhodopsin activations are indistinguishable from single-photon responses.
Retinal phosphenes by bioluminescent photons
When you press your eyes or perform electric stimulation in retina etc., you induce an excess biophoton production, if it go above a distinct threshold, excess biophoton can emerge as phosphene flash in our mind. In other words, the brain interprets these retinal bioluminescent photons as if they originate from the external world. My prediction about one kind of retinal phosphenes (i.e. phosphene perception during space travel) was experimentally supported by Narici et al. (2009). According to this study, free radicals induced by ionizing radiation (cosmic particles) can produce chemiluminescent photons via lipid peroxidation. Chemiluminescent photons are then absorbed by the photoreceptors and start the photo-transduction cascade, which results in the perception of phosphenes.
¨First experiments to support dark retinal noise and retinal phosphenes due to bioluminescent photons
Recently, we, Wang C, Bókkon I, Dai J, Antal I. (2011) First experimental demonstration of spontaneous and visible light-induced photon emission from rat eyes. Brain Res. 1369. 1-9.
Here, we presented the first experimental in vitro evidence of the existence of spontaneous and visible light induced (also called as *Delayed luminescence) ultraweak biophoton emission from freshly isolated whole eye, lens, vitreous humor and retina samples from rats. These results suggest that the photochemical source of retinal discrete noise, as well as retinal phosphenes, may originate from natural bioluminescent photons within the eyes.
Delayed luminescence (DL) is the long-term ultraweak re-emission of visible photons from diverse cells, organisms, and other material if they were illuminated with monochromatic or white light (Ho et al., 2002; Popp and Yan, 2002; Kim et al., 2005). DL intensity is radically lower than the well-known fluorescence or phosphorescence. The decay time of DL is dependent on the physiological conditions of the samples and the kinds of tissues they were extracted from, as well as the intensity, duration, and spectral distribution of illumination (Kim et al., 2005).
Negative afterimages by long-term ultraweak re-emission (Delayed luminescence) of visible photons (Delayed luminescence)
The delayed luminescence of biological tissues is an ultraweak reemission of absorbed photons after exposure to external monochromatic or white light illumination. Recently, Wang, we, Bókkon, Dai and Antal (Brain Res. 2011) presented the first experimental proof of the existence of spontaneous ultraweak biophoton emission and visible light induced delayed ultraweak photon emission from in vitro freshly isolated rat’s whole eye, lens, vitreous humor and retina. It suggests that the photobiophysical source of negative afterimage can also occur within the eye by delayed bioluminescent photons. In other words, when we stare at a colored (or white) image for few seconds, external photons can induce excited electronic states within different parts of the eye that is followed by a delayed reemission of absorbed photons for several seconds. Finally, these reemitted photons can be absorbed by non-bleached photoreceptors that produce a negative afterimage. Although this suggests the photobiophysical source of negative afterimages is related retinal mechanisms, cortical neurons have also essential contribution in the interpretation and modulation of negative afterimages.
During normal vision, when we stare at an image (red triangle) for several seconds, a small fraction of external photons can be absorbed in various parts of eyes. Following we stared at a colored image (red triangle), a tiny fraction of absorbed external photons, which were stored within the eyes, can be released (delayed luminescence) for several seconds and absorbed by non-bleached photoreceptors that produce an afterimage in the complementary color. Although several parts of the eye performed delayed photon emission, the retina can be the most possible candidates to form an afterimage by delayed luminescence in the eyes. However, methodologies need to be established to determine what the major candidate part can be accountable for creation of negative afterimages by delayed photons.
BIOPHYSICAL PICTURES IN THE BRAIN
¨There has been a long-standing debate about visual imagery between the two rival theories, i.e., Kosslyn’s pictorial theory (depictive representation) and Pylyshyn’s symbolic theory (language-like representation). However, there is increasing evidence that visual imagery can induce activation in both retinotopically organized striate and extrastriate cortex, and visual perception and visual imagery share common neural substrates in the brain.
¨Current advances in the knowledge of the biophysics and chemistry of molecular brain structures suggest otherwise, and help redefine by what we intend by “pictures” or “mental imagery”. There is evidence indicating that energetic processes within mitochondrial networks can act as optical buffers by generating temporal and spatial dynamic patterns of bioluminescent photons in the visual system. Specifically, retinal visual information can be re-represented by regulated energetic and bioluminescent biophotons of mitochondrial networks in retinotopically-organized cytochrome oxidase-rich neurons of the primary visual areas.
¨Recent findings have provided evidence of the fundamental roles of free radical and their derivatives in intracellular signaling and intercellular communication processes (Dröge, 2002; Valko, 2007). Reactive oxygen species ROS and their derivatives act as signaling molecules in cerebral circulation and are necessary in molecular signal processes, synaptic plasticity, and memory formation under physiological circumstances (Ullrich and Kissner, 2006; Kishida et al., 2007; Knapp and Klann, 2002).
¨However, since biophotons originate from bioluminescent reactions of regulated free radical reactions, it suggests that the biophoton emission is also can be regulated process.
¨I have proposed a redox (free radical) molecular hypothesis about the natural biophysical substrate of visual perception and imagery (Bókkon, 2009. BioSystems; Bókkon and D`Angiulli, 2009. Bioscience Hypotheses). Namely, the retina transforms external photonic signals into electrical signals that are carried to the V1 (striate cortex). Then, V1 retinotopic electrical signals (spike-related electrical signals along classical axonal-dendritic pathways) can be converted into regulated ultraweak bioluminescent photons (biophotons) through redox processes within retinotopic visual neurons that make it possible to create intrinsic biophysical pictures during visual perception and imagery. Therefore, information in the brain appears not only as electrical (chemical) signal but also as a controlled biophoton (optical) signal.
¨Because all living cells and neurons produce biophotons, what the specific is regarding to V1 and V2???? The specificity is the structure, namely good retinotopic structure. Motor or auditory cortex cannot perform biophysical picture representation via biophotons because there is the lack of structural retinotopic representation demands. Why don`t we see the phosphenes or biophotons that are generated in the auditory system when we hear? Because auditory system is tonotopic organized. Why don`t we see the phosphenes or biophotons when we smell things? Because the main olfactory system detects volatile chemicals and the accessory olfactory system detects fluid-phase chemicals.
Why are neurons special in the visual system? Because visual system is retinotopic. Namely, in primates, LGN, the striate cortex (V1), and many extrastriate visual cortical areas including V2, V3, V4 are organized in a retinotopic manner, respecting the topological distribution of photon stimuli on the retina. However, V1 and V2 have "perfect" retinotopic maps. These areas are topographically organized, and they preserve the local spatial geometry of the retina, so patterns of activation in them depict shape.
¨According to our hypothesis, small clusters of visual neurons in V1 and V2 act as non-linear “visual pixels” appropriate to the topological distribution of photon stimuli on the retina.
¨Mind`s eye or homunculus by iterative feedforward and feedback processes. The concept of a homunculus (Latin for "little man", sometimes spelled "homonculus") is frequently used to demonstrate the functioning of a mental system. Who looks at the images in the brain? If we presume that this is a homunculus who does it, our visual imagery is associated with the occurrence of seeing with the mind’s eye. Nevertheless, auditory mental imagery is also accompanied by the experience of hearing with the mind’s ear or tactile imagery is accompanied by the experience of feeling with the mind’s skin, and so forth.
We presented an iterative model of the homunculus. Namely, we suggest that during visual imagery, iterative feedforward and feedback processes can be interpreted in terms of a homunculus ("little man") looking at the biophysical picture-representation. However, in our hypothesis, the biophysical picture is represented by biophotonic signals in our brain. There is a real possibility that biophysical pictures are part of the re-entrant feedforward and feedback processes, and they are not separate from each other because of the re-entry. Thus, a separate homunculus looking at biophotonic representations can be a misleading concept, because it is a iterative matching process. The matching element is both in physical and mental aspects of feedforward and feedback signals. However, we can render the visual homunculus and its mind`s eye by showing that it may be reduced to a set of non-linear biophysical iterative processes.
Bókkon I, Salari V, Tuszynski J. (2011) Emergence of intrinsic representations of images by feedforward and feedback processes and bioluminescent photons in early retinotopic areas (Toward biophysical homunculus by an iterative model). J Integr Neurosci. 10, 47-64.
¨We do not claim to have explained the enigma of consciousness, but our goal was to show that the somewhat mysterious homunculus phenomenon may be elucidated with the help of retinotopic representation, rapid feedforward and feedback connections (between V1 and V2), and non-linear iterative processes during visual imagery. We also proposed that emergence of an iterative biophysical picture-representation in retinotopic V1/V2 and the semantic interpretation of an emerged biophysical picture are two different things, although they may be tightly connected. The first is a biophysical picture-representation generating process (picture-like) while the second is a language-like semantic interpretation process. However, they can induce each other’s representations.
The human memory can operate through intrinsic dynamic pictures and we link these picture-representations to each other during language learning processes. During language learning processes, development of picture-like and language-like systems becomes a quasi-independent neural process. An important implication of this hypothesis is that long-term information storage of the language-like and picture-like representations can be encoded by non-linear epigenetic redox processes. The evolutionary advantage of the biophysical picture representation is that it makes possible, for example, for us to imagine events, compose and design objects, etc.
¨We should see that emergence of the iterative biophysical picture by biophotons in V1/V2, and the interpretation of emerged biophysical picture, are two different things, although tightly connected processes. The first is a biophysical picture generating process (picture-like) in V1/V2 but the second is language-like (neurocomputational) interpretation process that is achieved by higher-order associational areas.
¨My hypothesis does not claim to solve the secret of consciousness, but proposes that the evolution of higher levels of complexity made the intrinsic biophysical picture representation of the external visual world possible by regulated redox and bioluminescent reactions in the early retinotopic visual system during visual perception and visual imagery.
¨In reality, intrinsic dynamic pictures creation by redox regulated biophotons is an extremely complex process. Moreover, visual information is linked to other sensory modalities in the brain.
Storing of the long term picture representation
In our biophysical model the long-term visual information is not stored as pictures but as epigenetic codes. We are able to recognize objects because the same epigenetic processes are activated every time we see an object
Neural network does not store information just transmit/ mediate them. Synaptic plasticity idea is, to date, just an idea without any really proving. Neuroscience regards a neuron as being a simple element whose functions are limited to the generation of electrical potentials and the transmission of signals to other neurons. According to this view, cognitive and memory functions of the nervous system are performed by neural networks consisting of simple elements. However, cognitive functions are performed by complex elements whose function is not restricted to the generation of electrical potentials and transmission of signals to other neurons. According to Arshavsky, the performance of cognitive functions is based on complex cooperative activity of “complex” neurons that are carriers of “elementary cognition” (Arshavsky, 2006). Neuronal networks can work as continually variable information channels among neurons, but long-term memory has a chemical/epigenetic character in individual neurons. Although the epigenetic model, which state that long term memory is stored at the level of modified DNA molecules, has obtained little recognition, this model seems to be promising.
The latest studies suggest that epigenetic modulation of the genome (i.e., the regulation of chromatin structure through direct methylation of DNA or post-translational modification of histone proteins, including methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation) is a necessary component for the formation of neuronal plasticity, associative learning and long-term memory. Chromatin structure itself can represent a "memory" and allow for temporal integration of spaced signals or metaplasticity of synapses. The epigenetic model, which states that the long-term memory is stored at the level of modified DNA molecules, has obtained some recognition, and appears to hold promise.
¨What can be happened with emitted biophotons in cells and neurons? Photosensitive biomolecules of cells and neurons can absorb biophotons and transfer the absorbed biophotons energy to nearby biomolecules by resonance energy transfer, which can induce conformation changes and trigger complex signal processes in cells.
How we could prove/support the existence of biophysical pictures in early visual cortex? Via phosphenes, biophotons, visual phenomena.
¨Because phosphenes can be induced for example via TMS in V1 and V2 without any retinal photon perception, it suggests that early retinotopic areas can perform the same process without retinal photon perception. Thus, since retinal and cortical induced phosphenes are required to have a common molecular biophysical basis, if it can be demonstrated that perception of cortical induced phosphenes is due to bioluminescent photons, intrinsic regulated biophotons in early retinotopic visual system can be seen to serve as a natural biophysical substrate of visual perception and imagery.
¨Soon we publish a new paper that proves that ocular mechanical pressure can induce biophoton emission from in vitro freshly isolated rat’s whole eye. It seems that retinal phosphenes really due to the biophotons. Thus, phosphenes can be a key possibility for that we prove in indirect manner that our brain (also vertebrate animal brains from birds) can generate biophysical pictures.
¨Recently, Sun et al. (2010) revealed that ultraweak bioluminescent biophotons can conduct along the neural fibers that can support the relevance of our biophysical picture hypothesis. It seems that biophotonic and bioelectronic activities are not independent biological events in the nervous system, and their synergistic action may play an important role in neural signal processes.
¨Newly, Dotta, Saroka and Persinger (2012 Neurisci. Lett.) and Dotta and Persinger (2011) performed some novel experiments. Specifically, volunteers who imagined a white light in a dark room were compared to those who engaged in simple casual thinking. The authors found significant increases in biophoton emissions (300%) from the right hemisphere but not from the left in the former participant group. Namely, there was a cognitive coupling with biophoton emission in the brain during subjective visual imagery. They emphasized that the emissions of biophotons are strongly correlated with the action potentials of axons. These results support our biophysical picture hypothesis that subjective visual imagery is strongly correlated with the release of biophotons and may be the actual experience of organized matrices of biophotons.
¨If biophotons would play a significant role in visual imagery within the brain, then we would expect that simply shining a bright visible or infrared light into the (during open brain surgery) skull would swamp normal visual imagery. NO NO. The energy of external visible or infrared photons are too weak to perturb visual perception and imagery or produce phosphenes (i.e. inducing strong, excess biophoton emission), so we cannot experience phosphenes upon open brain operations.
Phosphene and the reproducible phosphene patterns (form constants), i.e., patterns of V1 and V2 visual areas could reflect the functional and elementary visual mechanisms
--Phosphenes are only perceived by blinds that have prior visual experience, suggesting that early visual stimulation is essential to maintain any level of residual visual function (Merabet et al., 2003). The emerged phosphenes lie in the visual hemifield contra-lateral to the stimulated cortical hemisphere and reflect the retinotopic structure of the visual cortex
--Many investigations suggested that geometric visual hallucinations are generated mainly in early retinotopic V1, V2 areas. Namely, early retinotopic structures can be responsible for the production of phosphene and the reproducible phosphene patterns (form constants). I propose that spontaneous/natural retinotopic phosphene patterns may play roles in the development of visual ability of newborns. We should see that visual circuits that are normally involved in the detection of visual perception features are also responsible for the generation of the phosphenes patterns (form constants).
--Karl Lashley, in 1941, suggested a relationship between cortical architecture and the geometry of pathological visual hallucinations, which was based on his own migraine aura and anatomical explanations.
--Heinrich Klüver scientifically studied the effects of hallucinogenic mescalin on the subjective experiences of its users. Klüver observed that mescaline produced recurring geometric patterns in different users. He called these recurring patterns `form constants` and categorized four types such as: lattices, cobwebs, tunnels, and spirals. He proposed that the reproducible geometry patterns reflect elementary visual mechanisms. Klüver`s form constants appeared in other drug-induced and naturally-occurring hallucinations, suggesting a similar physiological mechanism underlying hallucinations with diverse triggers.
--Max Knoll, in the 1950s, grouped electrically produced and reproducible phosphene patterns into 15 form groups. About half of the subjects reported seeing geometric figures and they found that by varying the frequency of pulses, the patterns changed. However, the same fundamental patterns were emerged, which were classified by Knoll into fifteen groups.
--Gerald Oster wrote in 1970 (Scientific American, 222 pp. 83-87), “It is instructive for an adult to ask an articulate child what he see when he closes he eyes at bedtime. Children between the ages of two and four, capable of manipulating a pencil but not of making naturalistic pictures, draw figures that have a distinct phosphene character. Children have an ability, which diminishes with adolescence, to evoke phosphenes quite easily. Phosphenes may indeed be an important part of the child`s real environment, since he may not readily distinguish this internal phenomenon from those of the external world.”
--Burke (2002) presented the first convincing report about his personal hallucinations, which have a remarkable similarity to the patterns produced by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase staining or by fMRI imaging in V1 and V2 areas. In other words, his personal hallucination patterns could reflect the functional patterns of his V1 and V2 visual areas during his hallucination.
--One of the most persuasive examples of columnar organization is the distribution of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase in the primary visual cortex. Neurons tuned to various stimulus features but the same retinal positions are assembled into retinotopic arrays of hypercolumns. Hypercolumns include three subsystems as ocular-dominance columns, iso-orientation domains, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase rich blobs (and thin stripes) (Bartfeld and Grinvald, 1992). According to Tehovnik and Slocum, (2007) ”The functional unit for phosphene induction in V1 is most likely the hypercolumn, which is about 1 x 0.7 mm of tissue composed of layers spanning some 2 mm of tissue from the surface of cortex.”
Spatiotemporal mitochondrial processes can also reflect representations within neurons during sensory experiences.
--It is scarcely stressed in the scientific papers that apperception (conscious perception/representation/function) requires energetic conditions. The brain can perceive, detect, discriminate, and recognize consciously just those pieces of external information, which reach a critical intrinsic energetic level (guaranteed by neuronal mitochondrial activity), an adequate duration of information representation as well as an adequate coherence levels that is provided by complex neural structures. At the end, the brain can perceive these signals consciously.
--In general, the mitochondrion is described as little roundest organelle of a size much smaller than that of the cell. However, cells very often contain filamentous mitochondria (Skulachev, 2